Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) English nursing pioneer and hospital reformer inspecting wards of the military hospital at Scutari during the Crimean War (1853-1856). Patients able to leave bed cluster round a box stove. After lithograph from Simpson Illustrations of the War in the East, London, 1856
Geography; Cartography; Discovery; Exploration; Sixteenth century; 16th century
World map of 1502 showing the continent of Africa in the centre. Named after Alberto Cantino, Italian diplomatic agent in Lisbon, who obtained it for the Duke of Ferrara. The rivalry between Spain and Portugal over trade and conquest was regulated by the Treaty of Tordesillas 1494. The blue line on left shows the Papal demarcation of territory, Spain to the West, Portugal to the East.
Refining gold: furnaces, 2,2, and operator, 9. The man near 4 is gradually heating a crucible surrounded by a ring of burning coals: to increase the heat coals were be raked into a smaller circle. From 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt- und Berckwercksarten originally published in Prague in 1574. Copperplate engraving.
Roman soldiers attacking the walls of a fortress with scaling ladders, slings and spears, while the defenders are holding them off with nets, hot liquid, spears and various missiles. From Poliorceticon sive de machinis tormentis telis by Justus Lipsius (Joost Lips), Antwerp, 1605.
Suction pumps arranged in three tiers and linked by cranks. Powered by a water wheel, they are being used to raise water from mine workings. From De re metallica, by Agricola, pseudonym of Georg Bauer (Basle, 1556). Woodcut.
The Kew heliograph being used during the British astronomical expedition to view the total solar eclipse, Spain, 1860. The temporary observation point with the Kew heliograph inside, surrounded by astronomers. Warren De La Rue took the first photographs of a total eclipse on this expedition. From The Illustrated London News Vol 37 (London, 1860).
Ctesibius (Ktesibius) of Alexandria (285-222 BC), Ancient Greek mathematician and inventor who studied pneumatics. Woodcut. On the left Ctesibius sits in his room surrounded by objects he is studying, showing his interest in the sound produced by columns of air at different lengths. On the right his father shampoos a client's hair while on the wall hangs his son's adjustable mirror. From Architechtur .. Mathematischen .. Kunst by Gaultherius Rivius (Nuremberg, 1547). Woodcut. .
Pannage. In the autumn pigs were let out in woods and forests to eat the oak acorns which were are poisonous to cattle and borses. From Graphic Illustrations of Animals and Their Utility to Man, London, c1850.
Roller Bridge or Inclined Plane for raising and lowering canal barges from one level to another. In this example power is supplied by a water wheel through gearing. From Bernard Forest de Belidor Architecture Hydraulique Paris, 1737. Engraving
Draining a mine by means of a suction pump. The man in the top right of the picture is operating the piston of the pump by raising and lowering the opposite end of the beam to which the piston rod is attached. From De re metallica, by Agricola, pseudonym of Georg Bauer (Basle, 1556). Woodcut.
Multiple suction pumps, powered by an overshot water wheel through a spur wheel and lantern, being used to raise water from a mine. From De re metallica, by Agricola, pseudonym of Georg Bauer (Basle, 1556). Woodcut.
Waiting for the Verdict: Uncle Sam against pillar, Spain lies dead, France, Russia, Austria, Italy, Germany and Britain argue over deathbed.' History' waits to record verdict. In Spanish-American War, 1898, Spain lost her colonial empire.
Chiromancy: Jerry takes break from hunt to have hand read told by pretty gipsy while Logick leans on fence. In encampment iron stewpot hangs over fire while, in foreground, turnips are peeled and cut up. To right old gipsy woman gestures to men to hide bi
Demeter, Ancient Greek goddess of corn and harvest equivalent to Ceres in the Roman pantheon, presenting corn to Triptolemus. In Greek mythology Triptolemus, hero and demi-god was taught the arts of agriculture by the goddess. Carved relief .
Draining mine workings by means of a battery of three pumps. The axle, B, is powered by an overshot water wheel. The cams on the axle raise and lower the piston rods by means of tappets. C is the bottom of the pipe which is encased in the basket, D. From De re metallica, by Agricola, pseudonym of Georg Bauer (Basle, 1556). Woodcut.
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) British-born South African prime minister, empire builder, financier and statesman. South African gold fields: Kimberley diamond mines. After The Cape cartoon by 'Spy' (Leslie Ward) for Vanity Fair, 1891. Colour
Tycho Brahe (Tyge Ottesen Brahe - 1546-1601) Danish astronomer, astrologer and alchemist who built astronomical instruments which enabled him to make the most accurate observations of his time. After a painting by an unknown artist.
Ludwig van Beethoven (16 December 1770- 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. He was a crucial figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music, and remains one of the most acclaimed and influential composers of all time. Portrait of Beethoven in 1818 by August Kl?ber
Thomas Linacre (c1460-1524) English physician and humanist. Studied medicine at Padua, Italy. Taught Greek to Erasmus and to Sir Thomas More. Tutor to Prince Arthur (1486-1502) eldest son of Henry VII. Founder of the Royal College of Physicians. Wood engraving
Experiment to ascertain the effects of electricity on water. High voltage electricity generated by a glass globe static electric machine. The figure in the centre is standing on an insulating block and is timing the effects by watching the clock on the left. From Recherches sur les Causes Particulaires des Phenomenes Electriques by Abbe Nollet (Paris, 1753). Engraving.
(James) Ramsay Macdonald (1866-1937), born at Lossiemouth, Moray, Scotland. British Labour (socialist) politician and the first Labour Prime Minister (1922-1924 and 1929). Macdonald at the dispatch box addressing the House of Commons. From a series of cards on Notable MPs (London, 1929).
Experiment demonstrating the effects of static electricity produced by a glass globe electricity machine on objects of various shapes sizes and substances. From Recherches sur les Causes Particulaires des Phenomenes Electriques by Abbe Nollet (Paris, 1753). Engraving.
Draining a mine using a duplex suction pump. The box ABCD, shown in detail on the right, contained the crank which operated the piston. From De re metallica, by Agricola, pseudonym of Georg Bauer (Basle, 1556). Woodcut.
A Firework display: The figure of a dragon breathing fire is attached to a rocket tied to a rope stretched between two buildings. Woodcut from Recreations mathematiques by Jean Leurechon (Rouen, 1628).
Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) French silk-weaver and inventor. Portrait woven by Jacquard loom, surrounded by printed border showing punched cards, paper for designing patterns, shuttles, bobbins, etc.
Half circle Hot spring Bubble Arty Photography mud hot thermal spring design different art arty design half circle New Zealand North Island boiling leaping mud shapes shape
These pools have continuously changing mud formations and have been named the flower pots. They CONSIST of white kaolin and silica resulting from steam and acid gases decomposing the ground. Black sulphur sulfur colors colours the pools in varying shades of grey gray and may occasionally form black oily slicks on the surface Ngapana Tokototu and Hauna Pools Te Puia
Method of deepening a canal. A number of holes are drilled close together on bed and the spoil is put the barge accompanying the drilling rig. If current was not strong enough to level out the bed of the waterway, a scraper or drum was used to do the work. The process could also be carried out by two men (L) before canal was flooded. From Architecture Hydraulique by Bernard Forest de Belidor (Paris, 1737). Engraving.
Battle of Lissa (Vis - modern Croatia) 20 July 1866, in the Adriatic between Austrian Empire and Italy; decisive Austrian victory. First major naval engagement between ironclads. After Joseph Puttner (1821-1881) Czech painter.
Tring cutting - 17 June 1837. Engineer Robert.. Stephenson. From J.Bourne Drawings of the London Railway, London 1839. Navvies excavating cutting: wheelbarrows filled at bottom, line attached to wheel, and then winched to top along narrow plank with labourer behind guiding.
Battle of Shiloh (Battle of Pittsburgh Landing), Tennessee, 6-7 April 1862. Major battle in American Civil War 1861-1865. Ulysses Grant directing his Union troops to victory against the Confederates. After painting by Thure de Thulstrup.
"Cornish miner's skull-cap lamp, for carrying on the head, or on the front of the wheelbarrow when going up an adit. Easily removed from helmet and could be fixed wherever needed. From ""The Playbook of Metals"" by John Henry Pepper (London, 1862). Engraving. "
Illustration of fashionable ladies and children at the coast, on the beach and in the sea. costume, dress, fashion, croquet, telescope, picnic, wheeled Victorian bathing machine, swim wear, seaside holidays, seaside innocence, spades, flags, fun, parasol, summer, families, Victorian culture, social history ,
Forth Railway Bridge, Scotland: the Fife cantilever under construction during October 1888. This was the first steel bridge, and was built with tubes fabricated from sheet steel produced by the Siemens-Martin process. It carried the railway across the Firth of Forth near Edinburgh. Designed by the British civil engineers John Fowler (1817-1898) and Benjamin Baker (1840-1907). Opened in 1890. Photograph.
Crimean War 1853-1856: Filling sandbags in British advanced position to build up protective defences. Gabions, wicker baskets filled with earth, used. From 'Illustrations of the War in the East', 1856. Russia France Turkey Britain
Ballistics. Gunners calculating the elevation of a piece of artillery using a clinometer and a quadrant marked with shadow scales. From Architechtur .. Mathematischen . . Kunst by Gaultherius Rivius (Nuremberg, 1547). Woodcut.
Royalty; Monarch; British; Hanoverian; Nineteenth century; 19th century
?Economy': Lord Brougham as John Bull, calling on the Prince Regent (later George IV) to retrench and curb his extravagance and to think of the people. Unless he does he will end up in rags (vision at top right). Sitting next to the Regent is his mistress, Lady Hertford. Cartoon by George Cruikshank, London 1816.
Plough used to deepen navigable rivers and canals. Man in boat exerted pressure on lever B, in order to keep plough on canal bed. From Architecture Hydraulique Bernard Forest de Belidor (Paris, 1737). Copperplate engraving
Means of transporting ore which has been won from a mine. In the foreground is a horse-drawn sledge, at D dogs are being used as pack animals and at E a man is pulling full pig skins. At B a sledge is being ridden down a slope. From De re metallica, by Agricola, pseudonym of Georg Bauer (Basle, 1556). Woodcut.
Britain; Civil; Engineering; Transport; Rail; Manufacture; Metal
Forth Railway Bridge from the South-East, c1890, Scotland. Completing the first bay. This bridge, built for the North British Railway Company, was begun in 1882 and opened on 4 March 1890. Benjamin Baker (1840-1907) the engineer. William Arrol (1839-1913) the principal contractor. The steel for the girders was produced the by the Siemens-Martin process. Photograph.