Jean-Dominique Cassini (c1670-1756) Italian-born French astronomer. Headpiece from his tables Astronomiques du Soleil de la Lune? Paris 1740 showing telescopes being used at the Paris Observatory to observe Saturn, the moon, etc.
The Great Melbourne Telescope on a temporary mounting in Ireland before being shipped out to Australia. Built by Grubbs of Dublin this instrument, a Cassegrain reflector, had a 48 inch (122 cm) speculum metal mirror and was fully steerable. Part of the tube was built in lattice form to reduce weight. From The Illustrated London News (London, 14 November 1868).
Lord Rosse's great 72-inch (1.828m) diameter reflecting telescope of 1845, called the Leviathan of Parsonstown. Mounted between two brick walls, it could move only in a north-south direction. The Earth's rotation provided movement in an east-west direction. From his paper 'On the Construction of Specula of Six-feet Aperture' in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London, 1849). William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (1800-1867).
Lord Rosse's great 72-inch (1.828m) diameter reflecting telescope of 1845, called the Leviathan of Parsonstown. Mounted between two brick walls, it could move only in a north-south direction. The instrument viewed from the south, showing the position of the when a man entered the tube to fix the small speculum and to remove the cover of the large one for the night's work. The Earth's rotation provided movement in an east-west direction. From his paper 'On the Construction of Specula of Six-feet Aperture' in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London, 1849). William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (1800-1867).
Observing a solar eclipse, 1673. Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687), a wealthy Polish brewer and councillor of Danzig devoted much time and money to astronomy. Hevelius, left, and an assistant, studying the sun during a partial eclipse. As viewing the sun directly would have damaged their eyes, they are in a darkened room and the sun's image is being projected through a telescope onto a piece of white paper. From Machina Coelestis by Johannes Hevelius. (Danzig, 1673).
Lord Rosse's drawing of the Crab nebula (M 1) from his paper 'Observations on some of the Nebulae' from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London, 1851). William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (1800-1867).
Hevelius observing through refracting telescope on stand fitted with quadrant and plumb-bob so altitude of object observed could be noted. From Johannes Hevelius Selenographia Gedani (Gdansk/Danzig) 1647.
Ptolemy (Claudius of Ptolemaeus) activel150 AD Alexandrian Greek/Egyptian astronomer and geographer, using quadrant to measure altitude of Moon. Behind him stands Urania, Muse of Astronomy. He is shown wearing crown as he was sometimes confused with the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) demonstrating his telescope, Venice, 1609. In this artist's reconstruction Galileo, Italian astronomer, mathematician and physicist, is showing his telescope to the Doge and the Venetian Senators. From Vies des Savants Illustres by Louis Figuier (Paris, 1870)
Casting the speculum metal mirror for the Great Melbourne telescope. The first casting of the 48-inch (122cm) mirror was made on 3 July 1866, but this was defective and it5 was the third casting made a fortnight later that was finally used. the telescope was assembled in Dublin before being dismantled and shipped to Australia in 1868. Built by Grubbs of Dublin. Engraving after the picture by Howard Grubb. From The Strand Magazine (London, 1896).
Solar Eclipse Observatory, Nicobar Islands. Showing various illustrations including The Equatorial Camera, Brownings Reflector and Spectroscopic Camera and Sig Tacchini's Observatory. Other geographical scenes include the village of Malakka, and views from observation stations. This plate was taken from The Illustrated London News, Vol. 66, 1875.
James Gregory (1638-75) Scottish mathematician. In 1663 he published Optica Promota describing his reflecting telescope. Corresponded with Isaac Newton. Engraving from A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen by Thomas Thomson (1870).
The 'equatorial coude' refracting telescope, Paris Observatory, France - aperture 7.5cm. The tube is 'bent' and light fed to the observer by two mirrors, one in front of the telescope and the other at the 'elbow'. Engraving from A Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy by George F Chambers (Oxford, 1890).
Dorothea Klumpke Roberts (1861-1942), American mathematician and astronomer. Roberts at work on the Carte du Ciel at the Paris Observatory. She is using a plate-measuring microscope to measure positions of star images on photographic plates. She was the first woman to make astronomical observations from a balloon. From La Science Illustree. (Paris, December 1903). Engraving.
Mary Somerville (born Fairfax -1780-1872) Scottish scientific writer, born in Jedburgh. After she was widowed in 1807she had the opportunity to study mathematics and astronomy and her second husband whom she married in 1812 encouraged her intellectual pursuits. Her translation of Mecanique Celeste by Pierre Laplace, published as The Mechanism of the Heavens (1831) brought her fame. Supported female education and emancipation and Somerville College, Oxford University, was named for her (1879). Engraving after the drawing of 1848 by James Swinton from the frontispiece of her Physical Geography (London, 1858).
Mary Somerville (born Fairfax) (1780-1872), Scottish scientific writer, born in Jedburgh. After she was widowed in 1807she had the opportunity to study mathematics and astronomy and her second husband, whom she married in 1812, encouraged her intellectual pursuits. Her translation of Mecanique Celeste by Pierre Laplace, published as The Mechanism of the Heavens (1831) brought her fame. Shw supported female education and emancipation, and Somerville College, Oxford University, was named for her (1879). Engraving from The Illustrated London News (London, 14 December 1872).
Microscopes and microscopical objects, 1750. I: Wilson's pocket microscope. II: Scroll microscope. III: Tripod microscope - improved form of Marshall's double microscope. IV: Ascough's compound microscope. Figs 23/30: Representations of animalcules discovered by microscope in samples of ditch water and described in Royal Society Philosophical Transactions No 283. From The Universal Magazine, (London, 1750).
Otto Wilhelm Struve (1819-1905) German astronomer, born at Dorpat. He followed his father, Friedrich Struve, as director of Pulkova Observatory near St Petersburg, Russia. Two of his sons became astronomers, and his grandson Otto became director of Yerkes and Macdonald observatories in the United States (1932). Lithograph.
Jules Pierre Cesar Janssen (1824-1907) French astronomer at the eyepiece of his reflecting telescope at Meudon observatory France. An accident at a young age left him unable to walk or attend school. He worked as a bank clerk and eventually entered the Sorbonne, graduating in 1852. From La Science Illustree. (Paris, 1893). Engraving.
Long focal length refracting telescope, 1728. The lenses for this instrument were by Francesco Campani, Italian lens maker of Bologna. From Hesperi et Phosphori nova Phenomena by Francesco Bianchini. (Rome, 1728). Engraving.
How to construct a mounting for a refracting telescope so that the Sun's image could be projected onto a screen and sunspots safely studied. A second screen at R blocked out indirect sunlight and made it possible to use the instrument without a camera obscura. From Rosa Ursina by Christoph Scheiner (Bracciano, 1630). Engraving.
Lord Rosse's great 72-inch (1.828m) diameter reflecting telescope of 1845, called the Leviathan of Parsonstown. Mounted between two brick walls, it could move only in a north-south direction. The Earth's rotation provided movement in an east-west direction. Engraving from A Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy by George F Chambers (Oxford, 1890). William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (1800-1867).
Lord Rosse's great 72-inch (1.828m) diameter reflecting telescope of 1845, called the Leviathan of Parsonstown. Mounted between two brick walls, it could move only in a north-south direction. The Earth's rotation provided movement in an east-west direction. Engraving from Astronomie Populaire by Camille Flammarion (Paris, 1881). William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (1800-1867).
Reflecting telescope of 40 ft/12 m focal length, 1789. Built by William Herschel (1738-1822) the German-born English astronomer, this instrument was the largest in the world, had a 4 ft/1.2 m mirror. Herschel made observations with this telescope but made more use of a smaller 18 in/46 cm instrument. From The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. (Edinburgh, 1807-1829). Engraving.
Refracting telescope on a very simple equatorial mounting being used in a darkened room (camera obscura) in order to project the Sun's image so that sunspots could be studied. From Rosa Ursina by Christoph Scheiner (Bracciano, 1630). Engraving.
Observers using a refracting telescope of long focal length mounted on a tripod, and fitted with a simple plumb line and scale for measuring the altitude of the object being observed. Engraving from Oculus artificialis teledioptricus sive Telescopium by Johann Zahn (Nuremberg, 1702).
Method of projecting the sun's image through a refracting telescope onto a screen in a darkened room (camera obscura) in order to study sunpots. From Selenographia by Johannes Hevelius (Gedani, Gdansk. Danzig, 1647). Engraving.
Amerigo Vespucci (1471-1512) Italian-born Spanish explorer. Shown here observing the constellation of the Southern Cross. America named from Latinised form of his name. Engraving after Stradanus, 1522.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres ( 1780-1867) French Classical painter. 'The Apotheosis of Homer'. Homer (8th century BC) Ancient Greek epic poet. Homer surrounded by famous literary figures from Plutarch to Moliere. Louvre, Paris.
Dr Syntax showing young lady the stars with small refracting telescope typical of this date, while manservant trips over dog and falls headlong down steps. Rowlandson illustration for William Combe Tours of Dr Syntax, London, c1815. Aquatint.
William Herschel (1738-1822) German-born English astronomer, shown holding a diagram of Uranus and its satellites. Uranus was the first planet discovered since ancient times. Engraving after pastel by John Russell.
Joseph Jackson Lister (1786-1869) English physicist and opticist who made important improvements to the microscope. On the table beside him is his improved microscope (1828) which had a pefectly achmatic combination of lenses. Father of the surgeon Joseph Lister. Photogravure.
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher. Pascal carrying out experiments with the mercury barometer on the tower of St Jacques-la-Boucherie, Paris. From La Nature. (Paris, 1878). Engraving.
ph135c Galileo Galilei famous astronomer astronomy mathematics mathematician maths philosopher philosophy science physics physicist father of renowned celebrated Tuscan Tuscany portrait picture art painting print
Image is thought to be a late nineteenth century reproduction of a painting by Giusto Sustermans (1597 - 1681).
James Bradley (1692-1762) English astronomer, born at Sherborne, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. Appointed Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford (1721). As third Astronomer Royal (1742-1762) he followed Edmond Halley as director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Bradley discovered the aberration of light. From The Gallery of Portraits, Vol VI, by Charles Knight (London, 1836). Engraving.
Peter Bassett The Clarke Telescope Dome Percival Lowell Observatory Flagstaff Arizona Refractor Telescope Mars Observing Martian Canals Astronomy Astronomical Pluto Astronomer Astronomy
The Clarke Telescope Dome. The Observatory's original 24-inch (0.61 m) Alvan Clark Telescope is still in use today for public education. Lowell Observatory hosts 70,000 visitors per year at their Steele Visitors Center who take guided daytime tours and view various wonders of the night sky through the Clark Telescope and other telescopes. It was founded in 1894 by astronomer Percival Lowell, and run for a time by his third cousin Guy Lowell of Boston's well-known Lowell family. The current trustee of Lowell Observatory is William Lowell Putnam, grandnephew of founder Percival Lowell and son of long-time trustee Roger Putnam.
Parallax. Diagram of planetary parallax showing the apparent difference in the position of a body when measured from two different positions on Earth. Used to measure the distance of a body. From The Beauty of the Heavens by Charles F Blount (London, 1845). Coloured lithograph.
Giant burning glass of the Academie des Sciences, used for chemical experiments, and constructed under the direction of Lavoisier (1743-1794) and others. From Amedee Guillemin Les Applications de la Physique, Paris 1874. Engraving
Telling time at night using a nocturnal. The hour is obtained by measuring the angular position of the imaginary line joining the 'pointers' in the constellation of the Plough to the Pole Star. From Peter Apian Cosmographia, Antwerp, 1539
William Herschel (1738-1822) German-born English astronomer: discovered first new planet since ancient times, Uranus. Built telescopes, including the 40-foot reflector shown in background. Artist's reconstruction.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian astronomer and mathematician. Portrait from frontispiece of his Istoria (1613) and Il Saggiatore (1623). Cherub, left, holds Galileo's military compass, while one on right holds a telescope. Copperplate engraving.
Demonstration of the Earth's rotation using (Jean Bernard) Leon Foucault's (1819-1868) demonstration of the rotation of the earth using freely suspended pendulum in the Pantheon, Paris, 1851. From La Nature (Paris 1887). Engraving.
St Jean de Luz, French Basque Country, France, city, cities, town, French towns, harbour, harbours, boat, boats, reflection, reflections, mountain, mountains, holiday, vacation, travel, leisure, autumn 2004
Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896) French physicist. Measured the velocity of light on the earth's surface (1849). Used Doppler principle to determine velocity of stars in line of sight. Confirmed the wave theory of light. From Les Merveilles de la Science, Louis Figuier, (Paris, 1870). Engraving.